Preliminary Checklist – Aquatic Annelids in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, North Carolina and Tennessee, USA

P H Y L U M – A N N E L I D A

We present here a preliminary checklist of aquatic oligochaetes and other aquatic and semi-aquatic annelids occurring in and adjacent to Great Smoky Mountains National Park, North Carolina and Tennessee, USA. Because several megadrile oligochaetes are commonly found in aquatic, semi-aquatic, and limicolous habitats, those species will soon be included in the listing, below.
Taxa that are in Bold have been reported from one or more aquatic or semi-aquatic sites in the Park; those taxa not yet in bold are expected to occur based on their known distributions in southeastern U.S.

Higher level classification in the list below follows Schmelz et al., 2021 {Zootaxa 5040(4): 589–597}. See also Van Haaren et al. 2021 {Bionomia 21: 140–145} and Magalhães et al. 2021 {Zootaxa 4979 (1): 190–211}.

– i – = species considered to have been introduced to North America. [Note that several other species listed here could be cryptogenic (of unknown origin, possibly representing historical introductions)].


Subclass Oligochaeta Grube, 1850
[= oligochaetous Clitellata]

Order Haplotaxida Brinkhurst & Jamieson, 1971

Genus Haplotaxis Hoffmeister, 1843
Haplotaxis cf. gordioides (Hartmann, in Oken, 1819)

   [?Haplotaxis ichthyophagus Gates, 1971 – incertae sedis]

Order Lumbriculida
Brinkhurst & Jamieson, 1971

species yet to be determined.

Order Enchytraeida Kasprzak, 1984
Suborder Enchytraeina
Superfamily Enchytraeoidea

species yet to be determined.

Order Tubificida Brinkhurst & Jamieson, 1971
Suborder Tubificina
Jamieson, 1978
Superfamily Tubificoidea

FAMILY NAIDIDAE Ehrenberg, 1831

Subfamily Naidinae Lastočkin, 1924
Naidiinae spp., yet to be determined

Genus Arcteonais Piguet, 1928
Arcteonais lomondi (Martin, 1907)
Genus Chaetogaster von Baer, 1827
     Chaetogaster diaphanus (Gruithuisen, 1828)

Genus Dero Oken, 1815
Dero (Dero) digitata (Müller, 1773)

Genus Nais Müller, 1773
     Nais barbata Müller, 1773 ?
Nais behningi Michaelsen, 1923
Nais bretscheri Michaelsen, 1899
Nais communis Piguet, 1906
Nais elinguis Müller, 1773
Nais pardalis Piguet, 1906
     Nais pseudobtusa Piguet, 1906
Nais simplex Piguet, 1906
Nais variabilis Piguet, 1906

Genus Slavina Vejdovský, 1883
Slavina appendiculata
(d’Udekem, 1855)

Genus Ophidonais Gervais, 1838
     Ophidonais serpentina (Müller, 1773)

Genus Paranais Czerniavsky, 1880
Paranais frici
Hrabě, 1941

Genus Piguetiella Sperber, 1939
Piguetiella michiganensis
Hiltunen, 1967

Genus Specaria Sperber, 1939
Specaria josinae
Vejdovský, 1883

Genus Uncinais Levinsen, 1884
Uncinais uncinata Ørsted, 1842

Subfamily Pristininae Lastočkin, 1924
Pristininae spp., yet to be determined
Genus Pristina Ehrenberg, 1828 — emended Brinkhurst, 1984
     Pristina aequiseta Bourne, 1901
Pristina breviseta Bourne, 1891
Pristina jenkinae (Stephenson, 1931)
Pristina leidyi F. Smith, 1896
     Pristina osborni (Walton, 1906)
     Pristina sp.;  yet to be determined

Subfamily Tubificinae Vejdovský, 1876

Genus Aulodrilus Bretscher, 1899
Aulodrilus limnobius
Bretscher, 1899

Genus Limnodrilus Claparède, 1862
     Limnodrilus claparedeianus Ratzel, 1868
     Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri Claparède, 1862

Genus Psammoryctides Hrabě, 1964
Psammoryctides californianus
Brinkhurst, 1965

Genus Spirosperma Eisen, 1879
Spirosperma ferox Eisen, 1879 – i –

Genus Varichaetadrilus Brinkhurst et Kathman, 1983
Varichaetadrilus angustipenis
(Brinkhurst & Cook, 1966)

Subfamily Rhyacodrilinae Hrabě, 1963
Genus Rhyacodrilus Bretscher, 1901
Rhyacodrilus subterraneus
Hrabě, 1963

Genus Tubifex Lamarck, 1816
     Tubifex tubifex
 (Müller, 1774)

Branchiobdellida Holt, 1965

Genus Pterodrilus Moore, 1895

Aquatic, Semi-aquatic, limicolous megadriles

Order Crassiclitellata Jamieson, 1988
Suborder Lumbricina
Superfamily Lumbricoidea


Genus Amynthas Sims et Easton, 1972
Amynthas diffringens
(Baird, 1869) – i –

Genus Eiseniella Michaelsen, 1900
     Eiseniella tetraedra (Savigny, 1826)

+ several other as yet unidentified megadriles

Genus Sparganophilus Benham, 1892
Sparganophilus tamesis Benham, 1892
[previously identified as Sp. eiseni Smith, 1895, but recently
synonymized with Sp. tamesis by Rota et al. 2016]

SUBCLASS HIRUDINEA Savigny, in Lamark, 1818

Genus Erpobdella de Blainville, 1818
     Erpobdella punctata (Leidy, 1870)

Literature Cited.

Erséus, C., M.J. Wetzel, and L. Gustavsson. 2008. ICZN rules–a farewell to Tubificidae (Annelida, Clitellata). Zootaxa 1744: 66–68.

Magalhães, W.F., Hutchings, P., Oceguera-Figueroa, A., Martin, P., Schmelz, R.M., Wetzel, M., Wiklund, H., Maciolek, N.J., Kawauchi, G.Y. & Williams, J.D. (2021) Segmented worms (Phylum Annelida): a celebration of twenty years of progress through Zootaxa and call for action on the taxonomic work that remains. Zootaxa 4979 (1): 190–211.

Rota, E., S. Martinsson, M. Bartoli, A. Beylich, U. Graefe, A. Laini, M.J. Wetzel, and C. Erséus. 2016. Mitochondrial evidence supports a Nearctic origin for the spreading limicolous earthworm Sparganophilus tamesis Benham, 1892 (Clitellata, Sparganophilidae). Contributions to Zoology 85(1): 113–119.

Schmelz, R.M., C. Erséus, P. Martin, T. van Haaren, and T. Timm. 2021. A proposed order-level classification in Oligochaeta (Annelida, Clitellata). Zootaxa 5040(4): 589–597.  

Van Haaren, T., Martin, P. & Dubois, A. (2021) Authorship and date of five family-series nomina in Oligochaeta (Annelida): Lumbricidae, Naididae, Enchytraeidae, Tubificidae and Lumbriculidae. Bionomina 21: 140–145.